Henri Marie Coanda – (b. June 7 1886 – d. November 25 , 1972) was an a fost a Romanian academician and  engineer a pioneer of the aviation , inventor, of reaction motor and discoverer of the effect carring his name.  .

Henri Coandă  was born in  Bucharest on June  7 , 1886, being the second child of a numerous family. His father had been the general Constantin Coandă, former professor of mathematics at  Şcoala naţională de poduri şi şosele (National School of Bridges and Roads) in Bucharest and former prime minister of Romania for a short period of time in  1918. His mother , Aida Danet was the daughter of the French physician Gustave Danet, originally from  Bretagne.

He was later to recall that even as a child he was fascinated by the miracle of wind.

Henri Coandă firstly attended Elementary school at the Petrache Poenaru Communal School in Bucharest, then (1896) began his secondary school career at Saint Sava National College where he attended the first three classes and after that  at the age of 13, his father, who desired a military career for him, had him transferred to the Military High School in Iaşi (1899). He graduated in 1903 with the rank of sergeant major, and he continued his studies at the School of Artillery, Military, and Naval Engineering in Bucharest.

Sent with an artillery regiment to Germany (1904), he enrolled in the Technische Hochschule in Charlottenburg, Berlin. Being  more interested in the technical problems of flight, in 1905, Coandă  built a missile-aeroplane for the Romanian Army. He continued his studies (1907–1908) in Liège, Belgium, and  in The Technical Institute Montefiore. In 1908 Coandă returned to Romania to serve as an active officer in the Second Artillery Regiment. His inventor’s spirit did not comport well with military discipline and he obtained permission to leave the army, after which he took advantage of his renewed freedom to take a long automobile trip to Isfahan, Teheran, and Tibet.

Upon his return, he travelled to France  where he enrolled in the newly founded in Paris (1909) École Nationale Superieure d’Ingenieurs en Construction Aéronautique and  one year later (1910) he graduated at the head of the first class of aeronautical engineers.

WiIn 1910, in the workshop of Gianni Caproni, he designed and built an aircraft known as the Coandă-1910, which he displayed publicly at the second International Aeronautic Salon in Paris that year. The plane used a 4-cylinder piston engine to power a rotary compressor which was intended to propel the craft by a combination of suction at the front and airflow out the rear instead of using a propeller.

With the support of the engineer  Gustave Eiffel and the savant  Paul Painlevé, for obtaining the necessary approvals, Henri Coandă made the preliminary aerodynamic experiments and built  in the workshop of Joachim Caproni  the first aircraft with reactive propulsion (in fact a reaction aircraft without propeller  convenţionally known as  Coandă-1910) which he displayed publicly at the second International Aeronautic Salon in Paris (1910).      In the airport of Issy-them-Moulineaux, near Paris, Coandă lost the control of its airplane jet, which left the track and it caught fire. Luckyly, it saved with a good scare and some smaller wounds in its face and hands. Around that one time, Coandă left its experiments due to the lack of interest and of support of I publish scientist and of the institutions of engineers.

During an attempt to fly in December 1910, in the airport of Issy-them-Moulineaux, near Paris, Coandă lost the control of its airplane jet, which left the track and it caught fire. Luckyly, it saved with a good scare and some smaller wounds in its face and hands. Around that one time, Coandă left its experiments due to the lack of interest and of support of the public and of the  scientists.

Between 1911 and 1914,Henri Coanda  worked like Technical Director of Bristol Airplane Company, located in the United Kingdom, where he built aircrafts with propeller  of high performance  based upon his own concept . In the future years he returned  to France where he built a recognition  aircraft  (1916) very much appreciated in that period , the first sleigh to reaction, and the first aerodynamic railway train  etc . In 1934 he obtained a French patent for “Process and device for the deviation of a fluid inside another fluid”. Refering to the phenomenon  named today Coandă’s effect consisting in the deviation of a fluid jet flowing along a convex wall which  was observed for the first time  by him in 1910 on the occasion of testing the engine which powered his jet  aircraft. This discovery led him carry out important applicative researches concerning hyper-sustentation of aerodynes, the achievement of sound attenuators etc.

In 1969 Henri Coandă  returned definitely in Romania where it served as director of the Institute for the Technical and Scientific Creation (INCREST) and in the following year 1970 became  a member of The Romanian Academy. Coandă died in Bucharest on 25 of November 1972 at the age of 86 years.

Coanda’s reaction airplane (1910)-Coanda-1910.  A movable platform for aerodynamic experiments. The device was mounted on  a train and the experiments were developed running  to 90 km/h in the route of Paris Saint Quentin. Quantitative aeronautical determinations  could thus be made   using a tunnel of wind with smoke , an aerodynamic  balance and a camera designed by he himself. Following to these experiments  he established a wing profile which was to be operational for his future airplanes.

1911: In Reims presented an airplane of two motors and a propeller.

1911-1914: like technical director of the Bristol aircraft plants , Henri Coandă designs some “classical” airplanes (with propeller) known as Bristol-Coandă. In 1912 one of them gains the first prize at the International Competition of Military Aircraft  in England

1914-1916: Henri Coandă  works in the Delaunay-Belleville, Airplanes in Saint Denis. Here he designs  three  types of airplane from which the most known is Coandă-1916, having  two propellers  near the tail.  Coandă-1916 is like the transport  aircraft  Caravelle, to the design of which he participated.
The Invention of a new used decorative material in construction, the concrete-wood; a prominent example of its use is the Palace of the Culture in Iaşi  erected in în 1926, wholly decorated with the H. Coandă’s material.

1926: In Romania, Coandă develops  a device to detect liquids underneath the ground used in the oil exploration.

In the Persian Gulf  the Romanian inventor built  an oceanic equipment for storing  oil extracted far from the sea border .

Coandă Effect. The first observations are made when he studied the first jet-aircraft of the world ” Coandă-1910″. After the airplane take-off  Henri observed that the flames and the incandescent gas emitted by the fire tended to remain near the fuselage. After more than 20 years of studies made by him and by other scientists  Coandă described the principle of that  professor Albert Metral called ” Coandă” effect.

Other achievements :

– He invented the  gun without recoil  

– He created aerodina lenticulara  (based on  “i Coanda” effect namely the deviation of a fluid jet near a convex wall)

– He created the aircraft powered by two angines

– He created fuel  tanks in concrete

– He created  pre-fabricated houses (gold medall in Padua “for inventing the buildings in cellular configuration”, 1930)

– He created the solar installation for desalting the sea water.

– He created  “beton-bois” – a special material for buildings and ornaments (used by architect I.A. Berindei  for decorating the interior of Pallace of Justice in Iaşi, 1925.)

Henri Marie Coanda – (b. June 7 1886 – d. November 25 , 1972) was an a fost a Romanian academician and  engineer a pioneer of the aviation , inventor, of reaction motor and discoverer of the effect carring his name.  .

Henri Coandă  was born in  Bucharest on June  7 , 1886, being the second child of a numerous family. His father had been the general Constantin Coandă, former professor of mathematics at  Şcoala naţională de poduri şi şosele (National School of Bridges and Roads) in Bucharest and former prime minister of Romania for a short period of time in  1918. His mother , Aida Danet was the daughter of the French physician Gustave Danet, originally from  Bretagne.

He was later to recall that even as a child he was fascinated by the miracle of wind.

 

Henri Coandă firstly attended Elementary school at the Petrache Poenaru Communal School in Bucharest, then (1896) began his secondary school career at Saint Sava National College where he attended the first three classes and after that  at the age of 13, his father, who desired a military career for him, had him transferred to the Military High School in Iaşi (1899). He graduated in 1903 with the rank of sergeant major, and he continued his studies at the School of Artillery, Military, and Naval Engineering in Bucharest.

Sent with an artillery regiment to Germany (1904), he enrolled in the Technische Hochschule inCharlottenburg, Berlin. Being  more interested in the technical problems of flight, in 1905, Coandă  built a missile-aeroplane for the Romanian Army. He continued his studies (1907–1908) in Liège, Belgium, and  in The Technical Institute Montefiore. In 1908 Coandă returned to Romania to serve as an active officer in the Second Artillery Regiment. His inventor’s spirit did not comport well with military discipline and he obtained permission to leave the army, after which he took advantage of his renewed freedom to take a long automobile trip to Isfahan, Teheran, and Tibet.

Upon his return, he travelled to France  where he enrolled in the newly founded in Paris (1909) École Nationale Superieure d’Ingenieurs en Construction Aéronautique and  one year later (1910) he graduated at the head of the first class of aeronautical engineers.

WiIn 1910, in the workshop of Gianni Caproni, he designed and built an aircraft known as the Coandă-1910, which he displayed publicly at the second International Aeronautic Salon in Paris that year. The plane used a 4-cylinder piston engine to power a rotary compressor which was intended to propel the craft by a combination of suction at the front and airflow out the rear instead of using a propeller.

 

With the support of the engineer  Gustave Eiffel and the savant  Paul Painlevé, for obtaining the necessary approvals, Henri Coandă made the preliminary aerodynamic experiments and built  in the workshop ofJoachim Caproni  the first aircraft with reactive propulsion (in fact a reaction aircraft without propeller  convenţionally known as  Coandă-1910) which he displayed publicly at the second International Aeronautic Salon in Paris (1910).      In the airport of Issy-them-Moulineaux, near Paris, Coandă lost the control of its airplane jet, which left the track and it caught fire. Luckyly, it saved with a good scare and some smaller wounds in its face and hands. Around that one time, Coandă left its experiments due to the lack of interest and of support of I publish scientist and of the institutions of engineers.

 During an attempt to fly in December 1910, in the airport of Issy-them-Moulineaux, near Paris, Coandă lost the control of its airplane jet, which left the track and it caught fire. Luckyly, it saved with a good scare and some smaller wounds in its face and hands. Around that one time, Coandă left its experiments due to the lack of interest and of support of the public and of the  scientists.

Between 1911 and 1914,Henri Coanda  worked like Technical Director of Bristol Airplane Company, located in the United Kingdom, where he built aircrafts with propeller  of high performance  based upon his own concept . In the future years he returned  to France where he built a recognition  aircraft  (1916) very much appreciated in that period ,the first sleigh to reaction, and the first aerodynamic railway train  etc .In 1934 he obtained a French patent for “Process and device for the deviation of a fluid inside another fluid”. Refering to the phenomenon  named today Coandă’s effect consisting in the deviation of a fluid jet flowing along a convex wall which  was observed for the first time  by him in 1910 on the occasion of testing the engine which powered his jet  aircraft. This discovery led him carry out important applicative researches concerning hyper-sustentation of aerodynes, the achievement of sound attenuators etc.   

In 1969 Henri Coandă  returned definitely in Romania where it served as director of the Institute for the Technical and Scientific Creation (INCREST) and in the following year 1970 became  a member of The Romanian Academy. Coandă died in Bucharest on 25 of November 1972 at the age of 86 years.

Coanda’s reaction airplane (1910)-Coanda-1910.  A movable platform for aerodynamic experiments. The device was mounted on  a train and the experiments were developed running  to 90 km/h in the route of Paris Saint Quentin. Quantitative aeronautical determinations  could thus be made   using a tunnel of wind with smoke , an aerodynamic  balance and a camera designed by he himself. Following to these experiments  he established a wing profile which was to be operational for his future airplanes.

1911: In Reims presented an airplane of two motors and a propeller.

1911-1914: like technical director of the Bristol aircraft plants , Henri Coandă designs some “classical” airplanes (with propeller) known as Bristol-Coandă. In 1912 one of them gains the first prize at the International Competition of Military Aircraft  in England

1914-1916: Henri Coandă  works in the Delaunay-Belleville, Airplanes in Saint Denis. Here he designs  three  types of airplane from which the most known is Coandă-1916, having  two propellers  near the tail.  Coandă-1916 is like the transport  aircraft  Caravelle, to the design of which he participated.  
The Invention of a new used decorative material in construction, the concrete-wood; a prominent example of its use is thePalace of the Culturein Iaşi erected in în 1926, wholly decorated with the H. Coandă’s material. 

1926: In Romania, Coandă develops  a device to detect liquids underneath the ground used in the oil exploration.

 In the Persian Gulf  the Romanian inventor built  an oceanic equipment for storing  oil extracted far from the sea border .   

Coandă Effect. The first observations are made when he studied the first jet-aircraft of the world ” Coandă-1910″. After the airplane take-off  Henri observed that the flames and the incandescent gas emitted by the fire tended to remain near the fuselage. After more than 20 years of studies made by him and by other scientists  Coandă described the principle of that  professor Albert Metral called ” Coandă” effect.

Other achievements :

– he invented the  gun without recoil  

– he created aerodina lenticulara  (based on  “i Coanda” effect namely the deviation of a fluid jet near a convex wall)

– He created the aircraft powered by two angines

– He created fuel  tanks in concrete

– He created  pre-fabricated houses (gold medall in Padua “for inventing the buildings in cellular configuration”, 1930)

– He created the solar installation for desalting the sea water.

– He created  “beton-bois” – a special material for buildings and ornaments (used by architect I.A. Berindei  for decorating the interior of Pallace of Justice in Iaşi, 1925.)