Albert Einstein  –  (b. March 14 , 1879, Ulm — d. April 18 , 1955, Princeton) was a German-born theoretical physicist, who emigrated în 1933 in USA and was naturalized în 1940. He was an University professor in Berlin and Princeton and he developed the
general theory of relativity and  was a laureat of Nobel prize for physics in 1921.

The reasons of Nobel jury.

“ for his services to Theoretical
Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect”.

The life

Einstein was born in Ulm on March 14, 1879, and spent his youth in Munich, where his family owned a small shop that manufactured electric machinery. He did not talk until the age of three, but even as a youth he showed a brilliant curiosity about nature and an ability to understand difficult mathematical concepts. At the age of 12 he taught himself Euclidean geometry. Einstein hated the dull regimentation and unimaginative spirit of school in Munich. When repeated business failure led the family to leave Germany for Milan, Italy, Einstein, who was then 15 years old, used the opportunity to withdraw from the school. He spent a year with his parents in Milan, and when it became clear that he would have to make his own way in the world, he finished secondary school in Arrau, Switzerland, and entered the Swiss National Polytechnic in Zurich. Einstein did not enjoy the methods of instruction there. He often cut classes and used the time to study physics on his own or to play his beloved violin. He passed his examinations and graduated in 1900 by studying the notes of a classmate. His professors did not think highly of him and would not recommend him for a university position. In the same year he obtained the swiss citizenship

For two years Einstein worked as tutor and substitute teacher. In 1902 he secured a position as an examiner in the Swiss patent office in Bern. In 1903 he married Mileva Maric, who had been his classmate at the polytechnic. They had two sons but eventually divorced. Einstein later remarried with a cousin,Elsa Loewenthal.

In 1905 Einstein published in a single strike  the results of several theoretical studies which made him known and which  revolutionized the physics. The first and most important study comprises the first complete exposition of the  theory of  restrained relativity  in which he demonstrates that it is not possible to decide if two distant events occur symultaneosly.   Other paper concerning  the photoelectric effect contains the revolutionary hypothesis on the light nature. Einstein affirms that on some circumstances the electromagnetic radiation has a corpuscular (material) nature suggesting that the energy transported by each particle  of the light beam   named photon  would be proportional with the frequency of that radiation. In fact the first scientist who theoretically demonstrated that the electomagnetic radiation is emmited in precisely dertermined amounts was  Max Planck who  in 1900, has described mathematically the so called black body radiation.  Ten years later this hypothesis  was confirmed  by Robert Andrews Millikan. In another study concerning the electrodynamics of moving bodies he makes an exposition of the interaction mode between the radiation and matter and of the features of the physical phenomena observed in the systems of Brownian motion. Signaling the resemblence between curving trajectory of an object of a  reference system which is moving uniformly accelerated and the curving trajectory  of an object launched in the gravitational field, Einstein draw the conclusion that the light beams are curved when they propagate near a celest body of a very great mass and made the affirmation  which is difficult to understand  that the space would be curved. În 1916 he published the  memorial concerning the bases of the general relativity theory as a result of 10 years of study.  This work enter  on the line of his demonstations of the geometrization of physics.  In 1919, after a total solar eclipse the photographies of which were analysed  by an equipe led by Sir Arthur Edington, there could be measured the curving of the light beams in the gravitational  field of sun and the obtained results were in complete  concordance with the theoretical predictions.  There is famous the equation expressing the enormous amount of energy which is hidden in a body  : E=mc2, the amount of energy  (E) is equal to mass  (m)  multiplied by the  light speed  (c) squared. This enormous amount of energy may be released in the processes  both of nuclear fision and nuclear fusion  which  are the base for making  a nuclear bomb.

After in  1905 Einstein earned a doctorate from the University of Zurich for a thesis concerning the determination of molecular dimensions, in 1909 he was appointed  professor of theoretical physics in the same university  In 1914, the German physicist Max Planck brought him in Berlin where  Einstein took the leadership of a Research section in the Prussian  Academy.  After  1919 the merits of  Einstein were recognized on the world level.  He received numerous prizes and distinctions from different societies of Physics on the entire globe among which The Nobel Prize for physics in 1921 for the explanation of the photoelectric effect (in other words  the theory of the relativity). His visits in any side of the world have become national events, the photographers and reporters following him everywhere.  Although he regretted the lost of his intimate sphere, Einstein used his fame for propagating  his political and social views.

The two  social movements which were fully suported by him were the pacifism and the Sionism.  During the First World War Einstein was one of the numerous German academicians who publicly condemned Germany’s implication in the war.   After the war he continued the public support for pacifism and the Sionism, and was the target of numerous attacks of anti-Semitic and extremist groups in Germany. Even his scientific theories including the theory of the relativity were publicly ridiculed  as being  “non-German ”.

When  Hitler acceded to power in Germany  in 1933, Einstein was in a visit in USA. He decided immediately to emigrate in The United States. He received a function in Institute for Advanced Study, in Princeton, New Jersey.Continuing his activity in the favour of Sionism , Einstein renounced to his pacifist position  in the context of the immense threat to the humanity of the nazi regime  of Germany.

In 1939  Einstein together other numerous physicists contributed to the letter addressed to The President of USA  Franklin Delano Roosevelt, insisting on the necessity of manufacturing the atomic bomb  because there was the possibility that German government  to mahe also the bomb. The letter which was signed only by Einstein helped to accelerate the efforts for contructing the atomic bomb in USA  but he didn’t play a direct or personal role ti its manufacturing.

After the war Einstein engaged in the fight  for the international disarmament and for a mondial governing.  He continued his active support for Sionism but refused the offer made by the Israeli leaders to become a President.  In The United States, on the end of  1940’s years and the beginning of  1950’s years he supported the idea to make any necessary sacrifice tor preserving the political liberty together  other intelectuals.

Einstein died on April 18, 1955 in Princeton.

In  Germany, the year 2005 was decreted as  “ Einstein’s Year ”,  on the occasion of the 100-th  aniversary of launching the relativity theory  and of the 50-th aniversary of his death. During that year  there were organized  a series of scientific manifestations and actions for popularization of his theories.

It is very interesting that  Einstein never agreed the quantum mechanics. He had heated discutions with the  physicist  Niels Bohr concerning the Uncertainty
Principle  and passed away without accepting this theory.